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Know about Arsenic

Arsenic Affected Area

 

 

What is arsenic?
Arsenic is an element that occurs naturally in rocks and soil.  Arsenic can combine with other elements to make chemicals used to preserve wood and to kill insects on cotton and other agricultural crops.

How can I be exposed to arsenic?
It is possible to be exposed to arsenic through the following:

  • Food: Arsenic in the air can be washed to the ground when it rains, contaminating crops and fields.  Although arsenic can build up in the tissues of fish and shellfish, this form of arsenic will not hurt people.
  • Water: Water may have arsenic in it if there are high levels of arsenic in the rocks through which the water flows, or if there is a leaking hazardous waste site close by.  Some chemicals containing arsenic can dissolve in water. 
  • Air: Sawdust and smoke from burning arsenic-preserved wood may contaminate the air you breath.

Where and how common is arsenic found in drinking water?
Arsenic can enter the water supply from natural deposits in the earth or from industrial and agricultural pollution.  Arsenic is a natural element used for a variety of purposes within industry and agriculture.  It is also a byproduct of copper smelting, mining, and coal burning.  Industries in the United States release thousands of pounds of arsenic into the environment every year.  Once released, arsenic remains in the environment for a long time. 

It is widely believed that naturally occurring arsenic dissolves out of certain rock formations when ground water levels drop significantly.  Surface arsenic-related pollutants enter the ground water system by gradually moving with the flow of ground water from rain, melting snow, and so on.

High arsenic levels may come from certain fertilizers, animal feedlots, and industrial waste.  High levels of arsenic found in well water are often used to indicate improper well construction, or the location or overuse of chemical fertilizers or herbicides.

What are the symptoms of arsenic exposure?
Observable symptoms or effects of arsenic poisoning include:

  • Thickening and discoloration of the skin
  • Stomach pain, nausea, vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Numbness in hands and feet
  • Partial paralysis
  • Blindness
  • Long-term exposure (over many years or decades) to high levels of arsenic in drinking water may also cause:
    • thickening and discoloration of the skin;
    • nausea and diarrhea;
    • decreased production of blood cells;
    • abnormal heart rhythm and blood vessel damage; or
    • numbness in the hands and feet.

    Short-term exposure (days/weeks) to very high levels of arsenic in drinking water can result in:

    • abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea;
    • muscular cramping or pain;
    • weakness and flushing of skin, skin rash;
    • numbness, burning or tingling sensation or pain in hands and feet;
    • thickening of the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet; or
    • loss of movement and sensory responses.

             Studies dSkin Cancer

             Internal cancers bladder, prostate, lung

    Symptoms of High Level Exposure:

             Thick, rough skin on hands and feet

             Unusual skin coloring dark brown or white splotches

             Numbness in the hands and feet

             Circulatory disorders

             Tremors

             Stomach pain, nausea, diarrhea

             Possibly diabetes this effect has not been confirmed

    o not show greater risks of health effects in children, pregnant women or other vulnerable populations

     

Several studies have shown that inorganic arsenic can increase the risk of lung cancer, skin cancer, bladder cancer, liver cancer, kidney cancer, and prostate cancer. The World Health Organization (WHO), the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have determined that inorganic arsenic can cause cancer in humans.

What should I do if I have concerns about arsenic exposure?
See your health care provider to discuss your concerns.  For more information, call the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Division of Toxicology at 1-888-422-8737.

How is arsenic exposure diagnosed?
There are tests that measure the level of arsenic in your body.  Arsenic can be measured in blood, urine, hair and fingernails.  Testing urine will tell you if you have been exposed to arsenic in the last few days.  Testing hair and fingernails will tell you if you have been exposed to arsenic in the past six to twelve months.  These tests will tell you if it was arsenic that made you sick.  However, the tests cannot tell if the arsenic will make you sick in the future. 

What is the treatment for arsenic exposure?
There is no effective treatment for arsenic exposure.  Your health care provider can only help provide relief from your symptoms. 

How do I remove arsenic from my drinking water?
Please DO NOT heat or boil your water to remove arsenic.  Because some of the water will evaporate, boiling water can increase the concentration of arsenic in your water.  Disinfecting water by chlorination or by using most mechanical filters is also NOT effective in removing arsenic from water.  However, there are several types of filters that can be used, including reverse osmosis, ultra-filtration, and ion exchange.  

 

Normal drinking water

water from 0.050 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to 0.010 mg/L

 

  The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)
    considered arsenic at its meeting in October 1966 (World Health
    Organization, 1967) and concluded that "until further data are
    obtained, the maximum acceptable lead of arsenic can be placed at

    0.05 mg per kg body weight per day".

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